There are a number of flags that represent Ireland, from the Red Saltire that represents the Cross of Saint Patrick to the shamrock-crested green banner that represents the Ireland rugby team. The national flag of Ireland, or ‘An Bhratach Náisiúnta’, is the official flag of the Irish Republic.
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Old Irish was the language of Ireland’s “Golden Age”, and its classical phase is generally assigned to the period AD 700-850. Old Irish evolved into Middle Irish, the language of the late Viking and post-Viking period. In comparison with Old Irish, Middle Irish is characterized by a simplification of the inflections of noun and verb and of the system of pronouns.
Irish is a Celtic language and, as such, is a member of the Indo-European family of languages. Within the Celtic group, it belongs to the Goidelic branch of insular Celtic. Irish has evolved from a form of Celtic introduced into Ireland during the great Celtic migrations between the end of the second millennium and the fourth century BC.
For millions of people, June 16 is an extraordinary day. On that day in 1904, Stephen Dedalus and Leopold Bloom each took their epic journeys through Dublin in James Joyce’s Ulysses, the world’s most highly acclaimed modern novel. “Bloomsday”, as it is now known, has become a tradition for Joyce enthusiasts all over the world.